77 Rigveda main article: Rigveda nasadiya sukta (Hymn of non-Eternity who really knows? Who can here proclaim it? Whence, whence this creation sprang? Gods came later, after the creation of this universe. Who then knows whence it has arisen? Whether God's will created it, or whether he was mute; Only he who is its overseer in highest heaven knows, he only knows, or perhaps he does not know. — rig Veda.129.6-7 78 The rigveda samhita is the oldest extant Indic text.
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70 The vedas were likely written down for the first time around 500. 71 However, all printed editions of the vedas that survive in the modern times are likely the version existing in about the 16th century. 72 four Vedas The canonical division of the vedas is fourfold ( turīya ) viz., 73 Rigveda (RV) Yajurveda (yv, with the main division. Vs ) Samaveda (SV) Atharvaveda (AV) Of these, the first three were the principal original division, also called " trayī vidyā that is, "the triple science" of reciting hymns (Rigveda performing sacrifices (Yajurveda and chanting songs (Samaveda). 74 75 The rigveda is the oldest work, which Witzel states are probably from the period of 1900 to 1100. Witzel, also notes that it is the vedic period itself, where incipient lists divide the vedic texts into three (trayī) or four branches: Rig, yajur, sama plot and Atharva. 63 Each Veda has been subclassified into four major text types the samhitas (mantras and benedictions the Aranyakas (text on rituals, ceremonies such as newborn baby's rites of passage, coming of age, marriages, retirement and cremation, sacrifices and symbolic-sacrifices the Brahmanas (commentaries on rituals, ceremonies. The Upasanas (short ritual worship-related sections) are considered by some scholars 17 18 as the fifth part. Witzel notes that the rituals, rites and ceremonies described in these ancient texts reconstruct to a large degree the Indo-european marriage rituals observed in a region spanning the Indian subcontinent, persia and the european area, and some greater details are found in the vedic era. 76 Only one version of the rigveda is known to have survived into the modern era. 64 several different versions of the sama veda and the Atharva veda are known, and many different versions of the yajur Veda have been found in different parts of south Asia.
63 Each of the four Vedas were shared by the numerous schools, but revised, interpolated and adapted locally, in and after the vedic period, giving rise to various recensions of the text. Some texts were revised into the modern era, raising significant debate on parts of the text which are believed to have been corrupted at a later date. 65 66 The vedas each have an Index or Anukramani, the principal work of this kind being the general Index or Sarvānukramaṇī. 67 68 Prodigious energy was expended by ancient Indian culture in ensuring that these texts were transmitted from generation to generation with inordinate fidelity. 69 For example, memorization of the sacred Vedas included up to eleven forms spondylolisthesis of recitation of the same text. The texts were subsequently "proof-read" by comparing the different recited versions. Forms of recitation included the jaṭā-pāṭha (literally "mesh recitation in which every two adjacent words in the text were first recited in their original order, then repeated in the reverse order, and finally repeated in the original order. 70 That these methods have been effective, is testified to by the preservation of the most ancient Indian religious text, the rigveda, as redacted into a single text during the Brahmana period, without any variant readings within that school.
59 61 Vedic schools or recensions main article: Shakha The four Vedas were transmitted in lab various śākhā s (branches, schools). 62 63 Each school likely represented an ancient community of a particular area, or kingdom. 63 Each school followed its own canon. Multiple recensions are known for each of the vedas. 62 Thus, states Witzel as well as Renou, in the 2nd millennium bc, there was likely no canon really of one broadly accepted Vedic texts, no vedic Scripture, but only a canon of various texts accepted by each school. Some of these texts have survived, most lost or yet to be found. Rigveda that survives in modern times, for example, is in only one extremely well preserved school of śåkalya, from a region called Videha, in modern north Bihar, south of Nepal. 64 The vedic canon in its entirety consists of texts from all the various Vedic schools taken together.
This has inspired later Hindu scholars such as Adi Shankara to classify each Veda into karma-kanda (, action/ritual-related sections) and jnana-kanda (, knowledge/spirituality-related sections). 17 58 Shruti literature main article: Śruti The texts considered "Vedic" in the sense of "corollaries of the vedas" is less clearly defined, and may include numerous post-Vedic texts such as the later Upanishads and the sutra literature. Texts not considered to be shruti are known as smriti (Sanskrit: smṛti ; "the remembered or texts of remembered traditions. This indigenous system of categorization was adopted by max Müller and, while it is subject to some debate, it is still widely used. As Axel Michaels explains: 53 These classifications are often not tenable for linguistic and formal reasons: There is not only one collection at any one time, but rather several handed down in separate vedic schools; Upanişads. Are sometimes not to be distinguished from Āraṇyakas.; Brāhmaṇas contain older strata of language attributed to the saṃhitās ; there are various dialects and locally prominent traditions of the vedic schools. Nevertheless, it is advisable to stick to the division adopted by max Müller because it follows the Indian tradition, conveys the historical sequence fairly accurately, and underlies the current editions, translations, and monographs on Vedic literature." 53 The Upanishads are largely philosophical works, some. They are the foundation of Hindu philosophical thought and its diverse traditions. 59 60 Of the vedic corpus, they alone are widely known, and the central ideas of the Upanishads are at the spiritual core of Hindus.
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50 51 The Brahmanas may either form separate texts or can be partly integrated into the text of the samhitas. They may also include the Aranyakas and Upanishads. The Aranyakas, "wilderness texts" or "forest treaties were composed by people who meditated in the woods as recluses and are the third part of the vedas. The texts contain discussions and interpretations of ceremonies, from ritualistic to symbolic meta-ritualistic points of view. 52 It is frequently read in secondary literature. Older mukhya upanishads ( Bṛhadāraṇyaka, chandogya, kaṭha, kena, aitareya, and others).
53 54 The vedas (sruti) are different from Vedic era texts such as Shrauta sutras and Gryha sutras, which are smriti texts. Together, the vedas and these sutras form part of the vedic Sanskrit corpus. While production of Brahmanas and Aranyakas ceased with the end of the vedic period, additional Upanishads reviews were composed after the end of the vedic period. 57 The Brahmanas, aranyakas, and Upanishads, among other things, interpret and discuss the samhitas in philosophical and metaphorical internet ways to explore abstract concepts such as the Absolute ( Brahman and the soul or the self ( Atman introducing Vedanta philosophy, one of the major trends. In other parts, they show evolution of ideas, such as from actual sacrifice to symbolic sacrifice, and of spirituality in the Upanishads.
Witzel suggests the possibility of written Vedic texts towards the end of 1st millennium bce. 39 Some scholars such as Jack goody state that "the vedas are not the product of an oral society basing this view by comparing inconsistencies in the transmitted versions of literature from various oral societies such as the Greek, serbia and other cultures, then noting. 40 However, adds goody, the vedic texts likely involved both a written and oral tradition, calling it a "parallel products of a literate society". 38 40 due to the ephemeral nature of the manuscript material (birch bark or palm leaves surviving manuscripts rarely surpass an age of a few hundred years. 41 The sampurnanand Sanskrit University has a rigveda manuscript from the 14th century; 42 however, there are a number of older Veda manuscripts in Nepal that are dated from the 11th century onwards.
43 Ancient universities The vedas, vedic rituals and its ancillary sciences called the vedangas, were part of the curriculum at ancient universities such as at Taxila, nalanda and vikramashila. Categories of Vedic texts The term "Vedic texts" is used in two distinct meanings: Texts composed in Vedic Sanskrit during the vedic period ( Iron Age India ) Any text considered as "connected to the vedas" or a "corollary of the vedas" 48 Vedic Sanskrit. There are four "Vedic" Samhitas: the rig-Veda, sama-veda, yajur-Veda, and Atharva-veda, most of which are available in several recensions ( śākhā ). In some contexts, the term Veda is used to refer to these samhitas. This is the oldest layer of Vedic texts, apart from the rigvedic hymns, which were probably essentially complete by 1200 bc, dating. The 12th to 10th centuries. The complete corpus of Vedic mantras as collected in Bloomfield 's Vedic Concordance (1907) consists of some 89,000 padas ( metrical feet of which 72,000 occur in the four Samhitas. 49 The Brahmanas are prose texts that comment and explain the solemn rituals as well as expound on their meaning and many connected themes. Each of the Brahmanas is associated with one of the samhitas or its recensions.
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Bc, resulting in a vedic period, spanning the mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium bc, or the late Bronze age and the Iron Age. 36 The vedic period reaches its peak only after the composition of the mantra texts, with the establishment of the various shakhas all over Northern India which annotated the mantra samhitas with Brahmana discussions of their meaning, and reaches its end in the age. Michael Witzel gives a time span. Witzel makes special reference to the near Eastern Mitanni material of the 14th century bc, the only epigraphic record of Indo-Aryan contemporary to the rigvedic period. He gives 150 bc ( Patañjali ) as a terminus ante quem for all Vedic Sanskrit literature, and 1200 bc (the early Iron Age ) as terminus post quem for the Atharvaveda. 37 Transmission of texts in the vedic period was by oral tradition, preserved with precision with the help of elaborate mnemonic techniques. A literary tradition is traceable in post-Vedic times, after the rise of Buddhism lab in the maurya period, note 3 perhaps earliest in the kanva recension of the yajurveda about the 1st century bc; however oral tradition of transmission remained active.
26 A related word Vedena appears in hymn.19.5 of the rigveda. 27 It was translated by ralph. Griffith as essay "ritual lore 28 as "studying the veda" by the 14th century Indian scholar sayana, as "bundle of grass" by max Müller, and as "with the veda". 29 Vedas are called Maṛai or vaymoli in parts of south India. Marai literally means "hidden, a secret, mystery". 30 31 In some south Indian communities such as iyengars, the word Veda includes the tamil writings of the Alvar saints, such as divya prabandham, for example tiruvaymoli. 32 Chronology main article: Vedic period The vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. 33 34 The samhitas date to roughly bc, 35 and the "circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the redaction of the samhitas, date.
are referred to as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" ( nāstika ) schools. 20 21 Despite their differences, just like the texts of the śramaṇa traditions, the layers of texts in the vedas discuss similar ideas and concepts. 20 Contents Etymology and usage The sanskrit word véda "knowledge, wisdom" is derived from the root vid- "to know". This is reconstructed as being derived from the Proto-Indo-european root *ueid-, meaning "see" or "know". 22 The noun is from Proto-Indo-european *ueidos, cognate to Greek (ϝ)εδος "aspect "form". Not to be confused is the homonymous 1st and 3rd person singular perfect tense véda, cognate to Greek (ϝ)οδα (w)oida "I know". Root cognates are Greek δέα, english wit, etc., latin videō "I see etc. 23 The sanskrit term veda as a common noun means "knowledge". 24 The term in some contexts, such as hymn.93.11 of the rigveda, means "obtaining or finding wealth, property 25 while in some others it means "a bunch of grass together" as in a broom or for ritual fire.
2 3, hindus consider the vedas to be apauruṣeya, which means "not of a man, superhuman" 4 and "impersonal, authorless". 5 6 7, vedas are also called śruti what is heard literature, 8 distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smṛti what is remembered. The veda, for orthodox Indian theologians, are considered revelations seen by ancient sages after british intense meditation, and texts that have been more carefully preserved since ancient times. 9 10 In the hindu Epic the mahabharata, the creation of Vedas is credited to Brahma. 11 The vedic hymns themselves assert that they were skillfully created by rishis (sages after inspired creativity, just as a carpenter builds a chariot. 10 note 1 There are four Vedas: the rigveda, the yajurveda, the samaveda and the Atharvaveda. 13 14 Each Veda has been subclassified into four major text types the samhitas (mantras and benedictions the Aranyakas (text on rituals, ceremonies, sacrifices and symbolic-sacrifices the Brahmanas (commentaries on rituals, ceremonies and sacrifices and the Upanishads (texts discussing meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge). Some scholars add a fifth category the Upasanas (worship). 17 18 The various Indian philosophies and denominations have taken differing positions on the vedas.
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"Veda" and "Vedic" redirect here. For other uses, see. Veda (disambiguation) and, vedic (disambiguation). The vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the. The, vedas ( /veɪdəz vi-/ ; 1, sanskrit : veda, " knowledge are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the surgery ancient. Composed in, vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer. Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of, hinduism.