Chapter 4 ( The rule language ) introduces the rule language, the rule-based transformation language that forms one of the key components in the rotan framework. The rule language allows the compiler builder to implement translations and optimisations by specifying them as high-level transformations on the parse tree of a source program. This chapter explains the syntax and gives an informal operational semantics of the rule language as implemented in the current Rotan prototype. Chapter 5 ( a rotan Compiler for Vnus ) describes the major test case for the rotan system: an implementation of a semi-automatically parallelising compiler for the Vnus language. Vnus is a programming language used as an intermediate format in the compilation process of higher-level (data-)parallel programming languages; the word semi-automatic signifies the fact that the compiler has help during translation, in the form of the data distributions specified by the user. The parallelisation and communication schemes used in this compiler are discussed, and examples of their implementation as rewrite rules are given.
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This compiler can be programmed by the compiler builder in a high-level, pattern-matching transformation language called the, rule language. This turns the compiler from the conventional static black box systems into a more dynamic, open transformation system, that allows easy and essay modular experimentation, debugging, and extension of compilation and optimisation algorithms. Chapter 1 introduction ) contains a general introduction to the thesis and discusses the research question. In Chapter 2 (. Data parallelism ) we give a brief general introduction to parallel programming, followed by a closer explanation of the data-parallel programming model that will be the focus for the remainder of the thesis. In data-parallel programming, the programmer specifies the distribution of data over the processors. It is left to the compiler to choose and implement the efficient distribution of the actual computations over the processors, and this is precisely where the challenge lies. In Chapter 3 ( Compiler Construction tools ) existing compilation models for sequential and parallel programming are described, and an overview of existing compilation tools and approaches is given. This chapter also contains a review of general-purpose transformation systems. The programmable the compiler framework called the rotan system is proposed as a means of obtaining the levels of flexibility, expressive power, and maintainability a compiler for (data-)parallel programming languages requires.
This has been a quite successful approach as far as the applications programmer is concerned, but under the hood the complexity and the programming difficulties have not gone away, but have merely been shifted around. The high-level programs must still somehow qualitative be converted to explicitly parallel applications, only now it is the compilation software, not the programmer, that is responsible for achieving this, preferably in a manner that will lead to highly efficient target code. Consequently, compilation techniques for parallel programming languages have also become a fruitful area for research. Both the compilation algorithms themselves, and the way in which they can be specified by the compiler builder are of interest. This thesis investigates particular technologies that can make the task of writing compilers for parallel programming languages more manageable and less error-prone. A compiler-generator framework called. Rotan can be used to create a programmable compiler for a programming language.
The research proved that the 3d videography can be used for the analysis great of paddling technique. The results may be used for solution of other problems that can occur in outdoor analysis, in the environments similar to wild water competition tracks. Regarding the size of the group and variation of its members, we concentrated only on individual analysis without statistic comparison. Latex tips: Thesis Summary, rule-based Compilation of Data-parallel Programs, certain computational problems are too big or complex for a conventional single-processor system to solve in a reasonable amount of time. In such cases, parallel computing is an approach bill that might be considered instead: by having several processors work on the problem simultaneously, the total execution time can be brought down to acceptable levels. Unfortunately, writing explicitly parallel programs is a skill that does not come very naturally to human beings. It is difficult to correctly keep track of the different parallel program threads, and the need for communication and synchronisation between these programs only adds to the complexity. This is why much research has gone into the creation of high-level parallel programming languages in which the user is shielded from (too much) explicit parallelism. These languages allow the programmer to pretend to a considerable extent that they are working in a conventional, single-thread model of computation.
Each competitor was studied separately. The obtained data were compared within the whole group of participants regarding special characteristics. The special characteristics were as follow: sex of the individual, the type of paddle and specialization of the competitor for slalom or wildwater. It should be mentioned that kinograms were used for the purposes of this study. The kinograms gave us visual information about the performance of the body movement. The analysis of the kinograms in the basic planes clearly describes the way of performing of kayak stroke in forward direction. The results can help the analyzed competitors and their couches answer questions concerning the best performance of the movement.
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Summarizing, the main contributions of this thesis are as follows. The discovery of a new replacement scheme ( TwoBig based on a two-level transposition table and number of nodes of the subtree investigated. Solving the game of domineering. The pn 2 -search algorithm. The bta algorithm (implemented resume for pn search solving the ghi problem. Back to my thesis page). Summary, the main goal of the thesis was to perform a kinematic analysis of paddling technique on wild-water kayak using a three-dimensional videography.
The principle of this method is the analysis of videorecording using digitalization. From the evaluation of obtained data we can get the basic online kinematic characteristic of the analyzed movement. The evaluation of the videorecording was done in apas system. The topic of the thesis as well as results of each task was consulted with the couch of the czech national team rndr. The experiment was carried out on four male and five female kayak paddlers, who were members of sk up olomouc canoeing club. They have all been involved in wild water kayaking for at least eight years and the majority of them were or still are representatives of the czech national team. For the analysis of the technique the performance of the kayak stroke on right and left side was studied.
The conclusion is that the pn 2 -search algorithm is a good method to use the increase in computer speed for additional searching, thereby gaining a better assessment of the values of the leaves. As mentioned above, in pn search identical positions in the search tree (and their subtrees) are doubly searched. In depth-first search algorithms the re-search of a transposition is avoided by implementing a transposition table. A logical way to avoid the re-search of a transposition in best-first search is to store a transposition only once, thereby transforming the tree into a directed Cyclic Graph (DCG). However, an important aspect of a position is the path leading to it (the history).
Ignoring the history of a position introduces the graph-history-interaction (GHI) problem. This leads to the third problem statement. Problem statement 3: Is it possible to give a solution for the ghi problem for best-first search? In Chapter 5 the ghi problem is analyzed in the domain of pn search. A different implementation of a dcg is suggested, and the pn-search algorithm is modified to be able to search this dcg implementation. The new bta (Base-Twin Algorithm) algorithm is based on the distinction of two types of nodes, termed base nodes and twin nodes. The purpose of these types is to distinguish between equal positions with different history. Experiments with this pn-search algorithm for dcgs confirm our solution of the ghi problem. In the test positions submitted the bta algorithm solves them all and hence outperforms other attempts to overcome the ghi problem as well as the standard tree algorithm.
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The increase in computer speed can also be used to do more search at nodes, thereby gaining more knowledge per node. The trade-off transpires in more searching, in favour of less memory to be used. This leads to the formulation of the second problem statement. Problem statement 2: short Which methods exist for best-first search to reduce the need for memory by increasing the search, thereby gaining more knowledge per node? In Chapter 4 the pn 2 -search algorithm is presented. The concept behind this algorithm is that the leaves are not evaluated by an evaluation function, but writing by a secondary pn-search process. Several experiments with different sizes of the secondary search tree show that much can be gained by choosing the right size of the secondary search tree.
Experiments show that pn search is suitable for solving mate problems in chess. However, there are two drawbacks: (1) a solution cannot be found if the search tree takes up all memory, and (2) identical positions in the search tree (and their subtrees) are doubly searched. These drawbacks are taken care of in Chapters 4 and. Every year there is a large increase in computer speed. Increasing computer speed causes acceleration of search algorithms. A best-first search algorithm (such as pn search) stores the complete search tree in memory. After a relatively short search time no more hello memory is available since the fast search has generated too many nodes.
the number of positions in the transposition table. Experiments show that doubling the number of positions is a good method for improving the efficiency of a transposition table. However, beyond a certain table size not much is to be gained from doubling the number of positions. Therefore, the third method concentrates on using the remaining memory not for doubling the number of positions of the table, but for enlarging the size of an entry, by storing more information in an entry. A limited set of experiments show that - beyond a certain table size - this method gains more than doubling the number of positions in the table, although more experiments are needed to substantiate this claim. In Chapter 3 proof-number search (pn search) is described. This is a best-first search algorithm, storing the complete search tree in memory.
For this purpose, a transposition table, holding the results of previous searches, is maintained in the remaining memory. The trade-off transpires in more writing memory to be used, in favour of less searching. This leads to the formulation of the first problem statement. Problem statement 1: Which methods exist to improve the efficiency of a transposition table? In Chapter 2 three methods for improving the efficiency of a transposition table are described. The first method addresses the use of an adequate replacement scheme. When a conflict arises, a replacement scheme decides which positions to keep in the table, and which positions to discard. Experiments show that in this area improvements can still be found. A new replacement scheme, called.
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Summary of offer Dennis Breuker's thesis, in this thesis, research is presented on the trade-off between memory and search. The domain under investigation is the domain of two-player zero-sum games, in particular the games of chess and domineering. The trade-off between memory and search is enhanced by the increase in availability of computer memory and the increase in processor speed. Currently, the prices of computer memory are decreasing. Therefore, acquiring larger memory configurations is no longer an obstacle, making it easier to equip a computer with more memory. A depth-first search algorithm (such as alpha-beta search) uses little memory. The large amount of remaining memory can be used,. G., to prevent the re-search of transpositions (identical positions in the tree).