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Previous familiar places have often proved themselves counterproductive to the patient. The halfway house provides emotional support and counseling to help reintroduce the patient back into society (Kaplan sadock, 1998). Alcoholics Anonymous is a voluntary program that helps the individual through social support. The ideas behind aa is to stay focused on the value of being abstinent (Riley, 1998). This program uses a twelve-step method as well as others, and many provide the individual with a more secular approach to treatment because they emphasize seeking help from a higher power (Neistadt crepeau, 1998). Al-Anon is an organization primarily for the spouses of people with alcohol-related problems (Kaplan sadock, 1998).

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During a session, the payroll individual would be encouraged to share feelings and experience group discussion, and participate in role playing or psychodrama (Reed, 1991). These opportunities are provided to the individual as a means to decrease social isolation, learn new interpersonal skills, and practice reintegration into social settings such as family or work environments (Riley, 1998). Treatment settings offer a wide range of services which include hospitals, residential programs, halfway houses, and organizations including Alcoholics Anonymous, Al-Anon and Alateen. Programs that involve chemical dependency usually take place in a special unit of psychiatric or general hospitals, are run by professionals including ex-addicts, where length of stay vary from a number of days to a month. After discharge from the hospital, the client is encouraged to join some type of follow-up program such as Alcoholics Anonymous (Neistadt crepeau, 1998). Residential programs are run by former addicts whose lives have been consumed by addiction in one gables form or another. This type of community requires a lot of structure where all members of the household are given responsibilities to maintain the environment. The community is closely monitored and residents usually have little or no contact with outsiders for certain lengths of time. During their stay, residents confront their addictions on a continuous basis (Neistadt crepeau, 1998). When a patient with an alcohol-related disorder is discharged from the hospital, it becomes important to find somewhere to stay other than home.

Other problem areas can be the inability to define goals, lacking goal oriented behavior, and depression (Reed, 1991). It is very important to consider performance contexts especially in the areas of development, cultural, and social environments. For many of these deficits improvements have been noticed with prolonged recovery, although some losses may be irreversible. Treatment programs can help these people over time or compensate for deficits from alcohol dependency (Riley, 1998). Individual therapy is part of many treatment programs, however, most of these programs employ various forms of some type of group treatment (Neistadt crepeau, 1998). Substance abusers in general have a tendency to isolate themselves, feel they are alone, or are unable to cope with their problems. Here is where group therapy helps those who have had similar experiences. Group treatment settings in particular are appropriate for alcohol dependent individuals since many people with alcoholic writing disorders tend to be emotionally and socially isolated, drink alone, and have difficulty tolerating conflict or relating socially (Riley, 1998). Group settings can help foster acceptance and a sense of belonging which strives to put the newly recovering individual at ease (Riley, 1998).

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They may neglect self-care and lack skills in money management (Reed, 1991). Performance components affected include sensory and perceptual motor deficits, cognition, psychosocial, and psychological issues. Sensory and perceptual motor impairments include a loss in tactile perception, figure ground perception, visual-spatial (greatest impairment and fine motor coordination (Riley, 1998). Motor deficits may include decreased physical tolerance, endurance, and peripheral neuropathy (Reed, 1991). Cognitive impairment include memory, attention span, concept formation, problem solving, and learning. Abstract reasoning, nonverbal problem solving, short term memory, and perceptual motor integration may become offer permanent losses (Riley, 1998). The person may have cognitive disorders associated with brain damage (Reed, 1991). Of the alcoholics entering treatment, 75 have neurocognitive deficits. Psychosocial and Psychological performance components which are affected by alcohol dependence includes values, self-image, self-esteem, self-expression, interpersonal and role related skills, time management, coping skills, and social conduct (Riley, 1998).

He/she will also need to take responsibility for the behavior and consequences of the past. Overall, he/she will have to learn to be an independent adult (Riley, 1998). In considering the expected level of independence for the person with alcohol dependency the occupational therapist will concentrate on ot domains of concern which include performance areas, performance components, and performance contexts. Primarily, functional impairment are seen in leisure and work performance areas. The alcoholic usually gives up leisure activities in order to spend more time acquiring and using alcohol (Riley, 1998). They will need to explore and develop a variety of leisure activities and skills (Reed, 1991). Work may be interrupted or jobs lost due to the physiological and psychological effects of short and long term dependency. These effects include decreased concentration, poor judgment, poor problem solving skills, increased absenteeism, and poor time management (Riley, 1998). Other performance areas where deficits appear are in activities of daily living and home management.

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They may attempt to control the addicts behavior or compensate for the addict by taking on some of their responsibilities enabling the addict to continue use. These dysfunctional ways of relating to the alcoholic writing is referred to as codependency. Many negative consequences associated with difficulty in expressions of emotion are job loss, marital separation, loss of child custody, and alienation of prior support network, such as friends and family. Chemical dependency treatment programs attempt to assist the dysfunctional family by altering the family members way of dealing with conflict, interpersonal needs, communication patterns, and domestic responsibilities. Social attitudes and solutions for alcohol dependent persons include rehabilitation programs, decriminalization to imprisonment, and mandatory sentencing of drug users and sellers (Riley, 1998).

Lifestyle adjustments for the recovering alcohol dependent person could include restructuring their environment. This process would entail removing alcohol from the home, office, and other areas where the person may keep alcohol. Social environments need to be changed to exclude bars and friends who are not empathetic to the needs of the recovering alcoholic. Transportation routes can be altered to exclude areas of temptation for the alcoholic. The alcohol dependent person needs to realize that he has a problem and take the initiative to live a life without substance dependency. The alcoholic will need to gain better control over negative emotions and learn better stress coping skills. He/she will have to take back responsibilities that were avoided while dependent on alcohol.

Intoxication can cause auto accidents leading to injury or death of persons involved. There is also deterioration in overall function especially to the liver, heart, and brain. There is a high incidence of social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced due to substance abuse. Alcoholism affects family life, vocational performance, self-care abilities, physical and emotional health, social relationships, and financial well-being. Psychological and emotional deterioration for the alcoholic may include low self esteem, anxiety, depression, paranoia, emotional numbness, and poor handling of frustration.


Failure to move through the normal emotional developmental milestones is an outcome of early onset addictions. They remain emotionally immature and may act very similar to adolescents. Their behavior may be rebellious, temperamental, demanding, and dishonest. The process of learning to be responsible, accountable, mature, and independent adults may take up to 3-10 years. Alcohol dependency is accompanied by a life of denial and defense systems that serve to maintain the addictive process. Denial is seen in the early stages of addictions. Defense mechanisms include minimizing the negative impact of the behavior, rationalizing the drug use, and blaming others for their choices and actions. The lives of those close to the alcohol dependent person can also be affected. Being in a long term relationship with a substance abuser often results in low self-esteem, depression, chronic anger, and stress related illnesses.

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Looking into the environment, whether it be at lab the individuals work or home should be considered while treating an alcohol dependent individual. This is important in order to catch the possibilities of relapses or codependency. Another concerning consideration in treating an individual with alcohol dependency is the medication he/she is taking at the time of treatment. All medication the individual is taking while consuming alcohol is also a critical issue to consider in treatment. The alcoholic dependent person spends a great deal of their time in activities necessary to acquire the substance, in consuming the substance, and in recovering from its affects. At times when they are expected to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or at home they will be intoxicated or suffering from the symptoms of withdrawal. Withdrawal symptoms can include tremors, hallucinations, sweating, seizures, and diarrhea. Alcoholism can be physically hazardous causing injury to the person while engaging in occupations under the influence of alcohol.

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Anti-anxiety agents and antidepressants have been used as treatments for those symptoms associated with alcohol. However, there is rising attention to the use of psycho active drugs in order to control alcohol cravings (Kaplan sadock, 1998). Alcohol related disorders, such as, alcohol dependency can be love accompanied by a number of other disorders: mood disorder, anxiety disorder, sexual dysfunction and sleep disorder which are all alcohol induced. Sadock, lithium has shown to reduce mood cycles in manic-depression as well as an individuals desire to consume alcohol. Research is still underway to confirm the link between the two. The reduction of alcohol cravings is also being researched and validated with the use of serotonin specific re-uptake inhibitors or Tranzone (Desyrel) (Kaplan sadock, 1998). Precautions should be taken when working with an individual with alcohol dependency. The foremost important precaution, however, is to observe drinking behavior for relapses.

individuals last drink. Several side affects could occur if one ingests alcohol while being treated with. Physicians should caution patients of affects. According to kaplan and. Sadock, this drug can increase psychotic symptoms in some patients with schizophrenia in the absence of alcohol. The drug Naltrexone aids in decreasing ones craving for alcohol. The recommended dosage for this drug is one dose daily. Its primary goal is to promote abstinence by preventing relapses and decrease alcohol consumption in individuals (Kaplan sadock, 1998).

The reason for the high ratio is because females have a tendency to drink later on in life due to the increase of stressors. There is a link between familial history increasing the risk for alcohol dependency, as well as, a genetic predisposition (dsm-iv, 1994). Symptoms for of depression, anxiety, and insomnia accompany alcohol dependency along with suicidal ideation. According to the dsm-iv the prognosis for individuals with alcohol dependency is promising. Follow up studies indicate that highly functioning individuals show a higher than 65 percent 1 year abstinence rate following rehabilitation. Twenty percent or greater of individuals with alcohol dependency achieve sobriety without current treatment (dsm-iv, 1994,. Most individuals demonstrate self control and are able to actively participate regularly in daily activities. Individuals with alcohol dependency slowly increase their social and vocational roles with the aid of treatment (Reed, 1991). The enzyme acetaldehyde accumulates in the blood with any consumption of alcohol.

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Alcohol Dependency Essay, research Paper, alcohol Dependency, dependence is defined as a cluster of three or more existing criteria according to the dsm-iv for alcohol dependency over a period of 12 months. According to riley, substance abuse is commonly referred to as an addiction. These terms are often used interchangeably. Dependency occurs over time and is usually taken in excessive quantities causing harm to the individual (Riley, 1998). There is no known cause for alcohol dependency. However, there are contributing factors to the etiology of alcohol dependence. These factors are age, gender, cultural differences, depression, and schizoid personality traits. The dsm-iv states, low educational level, unemployment, and lower socioeconomic status are associated with dependency, although it is often difficult to separate cause from effect (dsm-iv, 1994,. Alcohol is more common front in males than females with a 5:1 ratio.


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