Why Use Blooms Taxonomy? The authors of the revised taxonomy suggest a multi-layered answer to this question, to which the author of this teaching guide has added some clarifying points: Objectives (learning goals) are important to establish in a pedagogical interchange so that teachers and students alike understand the. Teachers can benefit from using frameworks to organize objectives because Organizing objectives helps to clarify objectives for themselves and for students. Having an organized set of objectives helps teachers to: plan and deliver appropriate instruction; design valid assessment tasks and strategies;and ensure that instruction and assessment are aligned with the objectives. Citations are from a taxonomy for learning, teaching, and Assessing: a revision of Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Further Information Section iii of a taxonomy for learning, teaching, and Assessing: a revision of Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, entitled The taxonomy in Use, provides over 150 pages of examples of applications of the taxonomy. Although these examples are from the k-12 setting, they are easily adaptable to the university setting.
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The 1984 edition of, handbook one is available in the cft library in Calhoun 116. Acorn record for call number and availability. While many explanations of Blooms Taxonomy and examples of its applications method are readily available on the Internet, this guide to Blooms Taxonomy is particularly useful because it contains links to dozens of other web sites. Barbara Gross davis, in the Asking questions chapter. Tools for teaching, also provides examples of questions corresponding to the six categories. This chapter is not available in the online version of the book, but tools for teaching is available in the cft library. See its acorn record for call number and availability. The revised Taxonomy (2001) A group of cognitive psychologists, curriculum theorists and instructional researchers, and testing and assessment specialists published in 2001 a revision of Blooms Taxonomy with the title a taxonomy for teaching, learning, and Assessment. This title draws attention away from the somewhat static notion of educational objectives (in Blooms original title) and points to a more dynamic conception of classification. The authors of the revised taxonomy underscore this dynamism, using verbs and gerunds to label their categories and subcategories (rather than the nouns of the original taxonomy). These action words describe the cognitive processes by which thinkers encounter and work with knowledge: Remember Recognizing Recalling Understand Interpreting Exemplifying Classifying Summarizing Inferring Comparing Explaining Apply Executing Implementing Analyze differentiating Organizing Attributing evaluate Checking Critiquing Create generating Planning Producing In the revised taxonomy, knowledge.
The Original Taxonomy (1956). Here are the report authors brief explanations of these main categories in from the appendix. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives handbook one,. 201-207 Knowledge involves the recall of specifics and universals, the recall of methods and processes, or the recall of a pattern, structure, or setting. Comprehension refers to a type of understanding or apprehension such that the individual knows what is being communicated and can make use of the material or idea being communicated without necessarily relating it to other material or seeing its fullest implications. Application refers to the use of abstractions in particular and concrete situations. Analysis represents the breakdown of a communication into its constituent elements or parts such that the relative hierarchy of ideas is made clear and/or the relations between ideas expressed are made explicit. Synthesis involves the putting together of elements and parts so as to form a whole. Evaluation engenders judgments about the value of material and methods for given purposes.
Youre free to share, reproduce, or otherwise use it, as long as you attribute it to the vanderbilt University center for teaching. For a higher resolution version, visit our Flickr account and look for the download this photo icon. Background Information, in 1956, benjamin Bloom with collaborators Max Englehart, Edward Furst, walter Hill, and david Krathwohl published a framework for categorizing educational goals: Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Familiarly known as, blooms Taxonomy, this framework has been applied by generations of K-12 teachers and college instructors in their teaching. The framework elaborated by Bloom and his collaborators consisted of six major categories: Knowledge, comprehension, Application, Analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The categories after Knowledge were presented as skills and abilities, with the understanding that knowledge was the necessary precondition for putting these skills and abilities into practice. While each category contained subcategories, all lying along a continuum from simple to complex and concrete to abstract, the taxonomy is popularly remembered according to the six main categories.
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Lateral Slipping Plate movement : When two plates move sideways against each other, there is a tremendous amount of friction which makes the movement jerky. The plates slip, then stick as the friction and pressure build up to incredible levels. When the pressure is released suddenly, and the plates suddenly jerk apart, this is an earthquake. Earth's Major Plates: The current continental and oceanic plates include: paper the eurasian plate, australian-Indian plate, philippine plate, pacific plate, juan de fuca plate, nazca plate, cocos plate, north American plates, caribbean plate, south American plate, african plate, arabian plate, and the Antarctic plate. These plates consist of smaller sub-plates.
Since the earth's crust solidified billions of years ago, plates of its crust have been drifting all over the globe. The map of the earth is always changing; not only are the underlying plates moving, but the plates change in size. Also, the sea level changes over time (as the temperature on Earth varies and the poles melt or freeze to varied extents covering or exposing different amounts of crust. Forward Backward links : The Great Continental Drift Mystery from the yale-new haven teachers Institute, by lois Van Wagner). Print Version by patricia armstrong, former Assistant Director, center for teaching. Background Information, the Original Taxonomy, the revised Taxonomy, why Use Blooms Taxonomy? The above graphic is released under a creative commons Attribution license.
Most of the earth's seismic activity (volcanos and earthquakes) occurs at the plate boundaries as they interact. The top layers of the plates are called the crust. Oceanic crust (the crust under the oceans) is thinner and denser than continental crust. Crust is constantly being created and destroyed; oceanic crust is more active than continental crust. Types of plate movement: divergence, convergence, and Lateral Slipping At the boundaries of the plates, various deformations occur as the plates interact; they separate from one another (seafloor spreading collide (forming mountain ranges slip past one another (subduction zones, in which plates undergo destruction and. Divergent Plate movement: seafloor Spreading seafloor spreading is the movement of two oceanic plates away from each other, which results in the formation of new oceanic crust (from magma that comes from within the earth's mantle) along a a mid-ocean ridge.
Where the oceanic plates are moving away from each other is called a zone of divergence. Ocean floor spreading was first suggested by harry hess and Robert dietz in the 1960's. Convergent Plate movement : When two plates collide, some crust is destroyed in the impact and the plates become smaller. The results differ, depending upon what types of plates are involved. Oceanic Plate and Continental Plate - when a thin, dense oceanic plate collides with a relatively light, thick continental plate, the oceanic plate is forced under the continental plate; this phenomenon is called subduction. Two Oceanic Plates - when two oceanic plates collide, one may be pushed under the other and magma from the mantle rises, forming volcanoes in the vicinity. Two continental Plates - when two continental plates collide, mountain ranges are created as the colliding crust is compressed and pushed upwards.
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Glossopteris in these southern continents led Alexander dutoit, a south African scientist, to bolster the idea of the past existence of a supercontinent in the southern hemisphere, eduard suess 's, gondwanaland. This lent further support. Continental Drift Theory, earth's Plates: The earth's crust is divided into huge, thick plates that drift atop the soft mantle. The plates are made of rock and are from 50 to 250 miles (80 to 400 km) thick. They move both horizontally and vertically. Over long periods of time, the plates also change in size as their margins are added to, crushed together, or pushed back into the. Plate tectonics, the theory of plate tectonics (meaning "plate book structure was developed in the 1960's. This theory explains the movement of the earth's plates (which has since been documented scientifically) and also explains the cause of earthquakes, volcanoes, oceanic trenches, mountain range formation, and other geologic phenomenon. Type of Crust average Thickness average Age major Component Continental Crust 20-80 kilometers 3 billion years Granite Oceanic Crust 10 kilometers Hundreds of millions of years Basalt The plates are moving at a speed that has been estimated at 1 to 10 cm per year.
Eduard suess was an Austrian geologist who first realized that there had once been a land bridge connecting south America, africa, biographies india, australia, and Antarctica. He named this large land mass. Gondwanaland (named after a district in India where the fossil plant Glossopteris was found). This was the southern supercontinent formed after Pangaea broke up during the. Suess based his deductions on the fossil plant Glossopteris, which is found throughout India, south America, southern Africa, australia, and Antarctica. Fossils of, mesosaurus (one of the first marine reptiles, even older than the dinosaurs) were found in both south America and south Africa. These finds, plus the study of sedimentation and the fossil plant.
continents were separating into land masses that look like our modern-day continents. Wegener published this theory in his 1915 book, on the Origin of Continents and Oceans. In it he also proposed the existence of the supercontinent, and named it (Pangaea means "all the land" in Greek). Fossil evidence in Support of the Theory. Glossopteris, a tree-like plant from the permian Period through the. It had tongue-shaped leaves and was about 12 ft (3.7 m) tall. It was the dominant plant.
As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages. Click here to learn more. click on an underlined word for more information on that subject. If the dinosaur or paleontology term you are looking for is not in the dictionary, please e-mail. In 1915, the german brief geologist and meteorologist. Alfred Wegener first proposed the theory of continental drift, which states that parts of the earth's crust slowly drift atop a liquid core. The fossil record supports and gives credence to the theories of continental drift and plate tectonics.
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You have reached a web page that was created by Professor Frank pajares. Portions of his web site have been archived and others have been moved to homes not affiliated with Emory University. Information on self-efficacy is now available from about http p20motivationlab. Information on, albert Bandura can be accessed directly from his web site at Stanford University. Click here for information. If there is other information you are searching for, please let us know so that we can provide you with the information you are looking for as soon as possible. Thank you for your patience. Ellen Usher at or visit http p20motivationlab. M is a user-supported site.